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Human Rights Education in Asian Schools Volume III

Southeast Asia Pilot Teacher Training Workshop on Human Rights Education in Schools

HURIGHTS OSAKA

In 1998, the Asia-Pacific Human Rights Information Center (HURIGHTS OSAKA) organized a series of workshops on human rights education in schools. The workshops disseminated to a wide audience the human rights education experiences of schools in several Asian countries. They also helped raise awareness of the need to develop linkages among groups in Asia. One workshop each was held for Southeast, South, and Northeast Asia. A regional workshop, held in Osaka, Japan, in November 1998, ended the series of workshops.

   The workshop series consistently echoed one key theme: the need to train teachers and other education officials to implement human rights education in schools. Much of the concern centered on imparting (i) knowledge on human rights and human rights education, (ii) attitudes and values supportive of human rights, and (iii) skills in using learning methods that adhere to the principles of human rights. Training is therefore a crucial element in any program of human rights education in schools. HURIGHTS OSAKA thus launched a training program, again in collaboration with various institutions in the region.
   HURIGHTS OSAKA, with the National Human Rights Commission of Indonesia and the Center for Human Rights Studies of Universitas Surabaya, held the Southeast Asia workshop on human rights education in schools on 14-17 May 1998 in Surabaya, Indonesia. The workshop stressed the need for an ASEAN subregional training program. In the subsequent workshop held on 23-26 November 1998 in Osaka, Japan, participants from Southeast Asia agreed on a draft training design.
   A preparatory committee composed of representatives from Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines met in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, on 23-25 February 1999 and worked out the details of the training design. A program for a four-day training was adopted. The training workshop was held on 26-29 April 1999 in Bali, Indonesia.
   HURIGHTS OSAKA, the National Human Rights Commission of Indonesia, and the Center for Human Rights Studies of Universitas Surabaya jointly organized the training workshop. The Southeast Asia Fund for Institutional and Legal Development and the UNESCO Jakarta office provided additional financial support.


Training Design

The Southeast Asia Pilot Teachers' Training Workshop is designed to review the experiences of Southeast Asian schools in teaching human rights. It attempts to (i) develop ideas and teaching modules that will strengthen existing activities, (ii) provide support to an informal network on human rights education in schools, and (iii) provide concrete support to nationallevel initiatives on human rights education in schools.
   In particular, the training design has the following elements:
  • An ASEAN focus, which requires the following:
    • dealing with experiences of various institutions in the subregion;
    • situating human rights education programs within the realities of the subregion;
    • discussing the issue of culture and human rights in the context of the subregion; and
    • developing a vision for human rights education in the subregion.
  • Networking among human rights educators as well as relevant institutions in the subregion.
  • Using participant-centered methodology, which requires participants' involvement in activities such as small group discussion sessions that have no resource persons and whose facilitators provide minimal input.
Training Objectives

   The training workshop's objectives were the following:
  • Explicitly identify and integrate human rights in the school curriculum and teacher training programs.
  • Demonstrate knowledge, attitudes, and skills in promoting human rights in schools in various capacities (as teacher trainers and curriculum developers, for example).
  • Use of participant-centered methodology.
  • Develop skills in designing teacher training programs and action plans for dissemination, evaluation, and monitoring of human rights education.
  • Develop a support system for national activities through networking.
  • Develop an understanding of the various human rights education experiences in ASEAN.
Training Participants

   The training workshop is designed to serve the needs of the following:
  • teacher trainers;
  • teaching-material developers;
  • curriculum developers;
  • officers of teachers' colleges and education faculties of universities; and
  • school heads.
   The selection of participants primarily considers how important they are in promoting human rights education within the education system. They must have the following qualifications:
  • a position of influence in the education system;
  • an interest in a particular subject related to human rights;
  • an interest in social justice issues; and
  • English-language proficiency.
   Participants from Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam generally satisfied the qualifications set. Those invited from Malaysia were unable to attend.

Major Components of Training Design

   The training workshop has the following major components:
  • human rights concept and vision, which reviews the human rights situation and issues, national histories, and sectoral human rights concerns (such as those of women, children, minorities, etc.);
  • human rights education and the school curriculum, which includes (i) an update on human rights education work, (ii) discussion on the role of schools in promoting human rights in society, (iii) profiling of human rights advocates (teachers and students), and (iv) developing model human rights curriculums;
  • teaching methodology, which involves making lesson plans, modules, and teaching guides;
  • dissemination mechanism for training output (within and outside the school system); and
  • evaluation of human rights education programs and activities.
   Each component is translated into a program activity.


Workshop Proceedings

Presentation and Clarification of Training Objectives

   In leveling off their expectations with the workshop's objectives, participants raised several issues:
  • integration or nonintegration of human rights in school curriculums, overloaded school curriculums, and use of extracurricular activities;
  • relationship between human rights and family life, as human rights awareness starts at home;
  • human rights education as related to the development of the community and empowerment of people, since its objective is not limited to the schools and should therefore relate to the community;
  • relationship between the political climate and human rights education, and the fact that a legal mandate for human rights education in ASEAN countries is important in fostering a positive political climate;
  • development of teaching skills, selection of teachers, etc. as important factors that can assure quality human rights education, and the need to simplify teacher training programs;
  • collaboration between nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the Ministry of Education as important in human rights education in schools;
  • the need to compile human rights education materials in ASEAN countries; and
  • how other subjects in the curriculum may affect human rights education, since they may promote values incompatible with human rights.
   These comments relate to the objectives of the training workshop and are therefore considered part of the training agenda.

   Country reports

   The country reports as well as ensuing discussions highlighted the following observations:
  • Various manifestations of culture affect the human rights situation in ASEAN countries, including the following:
    • the culture of war and violence, which results from the lack of a system to peacefully resolve conflicts;
    • "family worship," which regards the family as so important that family members will even engage in corrupt practices to protect their clan's interests;
    • the culture of patriarchy, which especially affects women adversely;
    • the culture of impunity, which shields government officials from accountability;
    • the culture of silence, which afflicts most people, especially the poor, and which is worsened by the policy of silence and impunity by those who have power; and
    • support for the death penalty, which threatens the right to life.
  • Economic change and development affect the education system, as in Vietnam.
  • The principle of the rule of law has been disregarded for too long.
  • The relationship between the government and the people is being redefined as social reform movements try to transform government into one that is of, for, and by the people;
  • The meaning of human rights in relation to the family, school, and society is now seen as an important issue.
   The small group discussions also covered the human rights issues arising from a collective reading of the ASEAN situation. Each group reported the results of the discussion in the plenary session.

   Group 1
  • Poverty is a human rights violation as it hinders the exercise of some rights.
  • Equal access to education is obstructed by weaknesses in the education system (including inadequate education of teachers), which is a result of poor governance.
  • Laws are poorly enforced and judicial independence nonexistent. Government corruption frustrates the realization of human rights.
  • Injustice, discrimination against women, and domestic violence plague society.
  • Ignorance makes people passive. Cultural values clash with human rights values.
  • Concepts related to human rights are the following:
    • human dignity;
    • equitable distribution of wealth;
    • freedom;
    • equal access to education;
    • justice, fairness, and equality;
    • responsibilities vs. rights;
    • individual vs. collective rights;
    • gender sensitivity, gender balance, women's rights;
    • human rights vs. citizenship;
    • human rights values and culture, traditions, laws, and social contexts;
    • peace and conflict resolution;
    • democracy, national unity, independence, national sovereignty;
    • rights to life and self-development (economic rights);
    • human rights in practice; and
    • social justice
   Query: Is the teaching of moral values a form of human rights education? Is moral obligation a concept related to human rights?

   Group 2
  • The relationship between the government and people does not favor human rights.
  • Absolute government power produces a culture of silence. There is still no clear concept of human rights in Asian culture. The right to be treated with respect despite differences of opinion, and the rights to freedom of expression and active participation by people should be respected.
  • Girls are not given the opportunity to go to school. They also suffer from domestic violence. Women suffer discrimination in the workplace and at home. Human rights education in schools can prevent it.
  • Some teachers are unfamiliar with human rights. Others lack the knowledge and capacity necessary to teach human rights. Human rights education must equip teacher-advocates with the attitude, skills, and knowledge to teach the subject.
  • Misunderstanding and conflict characterize "mainstream" society's relations with ethnic minorities.
  • Ethnic groups suffer discrimination. Their rights to their own identity and to their own beliefs, religion, values, and way of life are not respected.
  • Child labor is increasing. The rights of children to an education and to be protected against exploitation and dangerous work are violated.
  • The environmental situation is worsening due to modernization and technology, violating people's rights to life, to a safe environment, and to basic needs.
  • The culture itself has elements that are antithetical to human rights, a fact that governments use as an excuse to force people to obey. A culture of human rights must be created in Asia.
   Query: Is there an Asian culture of human rights?
   Some view human rights as a Western value, without which Asian countries can live in peace and harmony, and Western cultures as ridden with conflict. Some assert that a non-Western concept of human rights can be developed. It can be based on Buddhism, for example, which holds that every living creature, not just human beings, has the right to life. Human rights are thus defined according to their cultural context.

   Query: Are people's conceptions of human rights so varied?
   An exercise requiring teachers to identify human rights suggests not. Teachers made a list of what they consider as basic rights. Their list turned out to be similar to the provisions of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

   Group 3
   ASEAN realities include the following:
  • a culture of silence (e.g., about corruption);
  • exploitation of disadvantaged people because of the economic crisis (e.g., through prostitution);
  • patriarchal culture (e.g., as manifested in domestic violence); and
  • use and misinterpretation of religion and traditional values to protect the status quo (e.g., dogmatic interpretation of religion, control of minorities by the majority).
   Human rights issues include the following:
  • lack of awareness and knowledge of human rights;
  • violation of economic and basic rights;
  • lack of appreciation of gender equality;
  • misinterpretation of religion and traditional values; and
  • legalization of violations of the right to life.
   Human rights concepts include the following:
  • self-dignity, and love and respect for others;
  • sectoral, racial, religious, and economic equality;
  • right to information;
  • respect for other people's rights;
  • rights to privacy, education, food, and shelter (social entitlement).
   Some debates continue:
  • Some believe that duty has a higher priority than rights because it is altruistic, implying that the self should be relegated to a secondary status. But the marginalized who insist on their right to self-dignity cannot be wrong. It is wrong to insist that those who are already suffering be made to perform their duty to others who do not suffer. The fact that they love themselves does not mean that they love others less.
  • The relationship between civil obligation and human rights should be clarified.
  • Some assert that prostitution does not constitute a human rights violation, but is an economic activity, a career, and that women should not be prevented from engaging in prostitution on the ground that it violates human dignity. Some, however, believe that economic needs cannot be used to justify the violation of human dignity and that family values that require one to serve the needs of the family even through prostitution violate human rights. Whether prostitution is work or a violation of human dignity (and therefore a human rights violation) is still being de- bated in international forums, and even women's groups are not unanimous on the issue.

Vision, Mission, and Goal

Facilitator Nerissa L. Losaria stated that vision is the art of seeing the invisible. Someone else once wrote: "Vision without action is a daydream. Daydream without vision is a nightmare." Vision is a framework for action. Losaria gave a sample vision from the Philippines: "Every young Filipino possesses and demonstrates human rights knowledge, skill, and attitudes guiding the values of justice, democracy, gender equality, spirituality, peace, and universality of dignity."
   The participants performed the visioning exercise toward the end of the workshop.


Update on Human Rights Education in Schools

The participants gave country presentations on the status of human rights education in schools. Below are the highlights:

Inhibiting and Supporting Factors

   Participants were divided into three groups and asked to identify and discuss factors that inhibit or support human rights education in schools. They also discussed measures to address the inhibiting factors. They then drew up the profile of a human rights advocate as a teacher and as a student.
   The results of the small group discussions were combined into three matrixes as shown below. Clarifications and comments were raised at the plenary sessions (see Table 1).

TABLE 1. Inhibiting Factors, Supporting Factors, and Feasible Measures in Human Rights Education
Inhibiting factorsSupporting factorsFeasible measures
In relation to the schools:
·Inappropriate teaching methods, and materials.
·Overloaded curriculum.
·Preoccupation with exams.
·Lack of mandate for human rights education.
·Lack of recognition of the needs of human rights education.
·Restrictive school rules and regulations.
·Unsupportive school environment.
·Lack of preparedness of the government education agency.
·Different situations between public and private schools.
·Existence of NGO movements.
·Support from national human rights commissions.
·Support from UNESCO.
·People's awareness of human rights.
·Support from Asian foundations.
·Existence of National Plan of Action for Human Rights Education, Constitutional and legal mandate, government policy.
·Provision of funds for human rights education.
·Commitment of some government and nongovernmental agencies to human rights education.
·Use of local art, music and values.
·Simplification of the notion of human rights.
·Exposure programs for students.
·Seminars and workshops.
·Use of media.
·Development of education methods.
In relation to the teachers:
·Undesirable attitude.
·Lack of training.
·Lack of skill or competence.
·Lack of human rights awareness.
·Lack of motivation, or indifference.
·Fear of reaction from government, school, and students.
·Fear of talking about human rights.
·Education and curriculum reform.
·Inclusion of human rights in some subjects, including those on State ideology.
·Support from parents.
·Moral support from other sectors.
·Government lobby work.
·Curriculum reform.
·Intensive teacher training.
·Fund raising.
·Networking among schools, organizations, and individuals.
·Adoption of appropriate school management system.
In relation to human rights concept:
·Unclear relationship between human rights and other issues.
·Misconception of human rights.
·Awareness of minority groups. ·Creation of system of cooperation between government and NGOs.
In relation to society:
·Consumerism.
·Traditional values and culture.
·Educators, who are not activists, who become active. ·Human rights education awarenessraising programs.

Profile of Human Rights Advocates

   The profile of human rights advocates as teachers and as students lists the values and/ or attitudes, knowledge, and skills that they need to have in order to promote and protect human rights. It provides a basis for developing any program on human rights education in schools. In the exercise, "heart" means attitudes and values, "head" means knowledge, and "hand" means skills--not just physical skills, but mental and other skills as well (see Tables 2 and 3).
   During the plenary session, the main issues raised were the following:
  • Gaps between reality and international human rights standards. Some children who study human rights in schools have been known to ask their parents, "Why don't I get three meals a day? It is against human rights."
  • The need for critical thinking if teachers are to relate the culture of the community to the universal standard of human rights. Traditional values sometimes work as inhibiting factors. How does one determine whether a traditional value is for or against human rights?
  • Misconceptions about human rights. These can inhibit human rights education. Some think that promoting human rights is "activism." Others are afraid to talk about human rights due to the political situation. Teachers sometimes feel insecure about teaching human rights.
  • The need to distinguish human rights from personal rights. Students sometimes confuse them. Some, for example, see smoking in the classroom as a human right.
  • Evaluating activities of students outside the schools. It is difficult to tell whether their actions are good or bad, but the students should be made to think about the consequences of their behavior, not only for themselves but also for others.
  • The need for voluntary adoption of programs for human rights education in schools. They should not be adopted only because of a mandate from the central government.
  • The fact that teachers themselves are not aware of the importance or usefulness of human rights. When this is the case, no amount of supporting factors will advance a human rights education program.
  • The need to introduce the concept of human rights not only in school, but in other areas of daily life. The importance of human rights should be learned through practice. Otherwise, students will study human rights only to find that their lessons are inconsistent with the reality.
  • NGOs as a supporting factor. However, there are many types of NGOs. Some are established by the government, while others are ideologically oriented or "fly-bynight." Governments sometimes use NGOs as "spies." Some groups would thus rather call themselves "social development agencies" to distinguish themselves from the spurious NGOs.

TABLE 2. Profile of Human Rights Advocates (Teachers)
HeartHeadHand
·Humane (kindness, friendship, caring).
·Open-minded.
·Committed.
·Tolerant.
·Respectful of and sensitive to differences.
·Conscientious.
·Role model.
·Good listener.
·Vigilant.
·Optimistic.
·Sincere and honest.
·Sense of fairness, justice.
·Courageous.
·Concern for others.
·Respect for one's self and others.
·Issues and problems of human rights.
·Good overview of human rights movement (in and out).
·Human rights violations redress procedure.
·Alternative, effective teaching methodologies.
·Basic human rights concepts and principles.
·Human rights situationer.
·Local culture and values related to human rights.
·Current economic, social, and political situationer (international, national and regional).
·Forms of violations of human rights.
·UN conventions related human rights.
·Social standards.
·Human rights teaching skills.
·Innovative and creative teaching of human rights.
·Communication skills.
·Good leadership and motivation.
·Participatory approach.
·Conflict management and negotiation.
·Ability to measure, promote, solve human rights problems.
·"Pedagogy of love."
·Socialization of human rights.

TABLE 3. Profile of Human Rights Advocates (Students)
HeartHeadHand
·Caring.
·Respectful of differences.
·Respectful of self.
·Peace-loving.
·Assertive.
·Self-confident.
·Self-reliant.
·Courageous and optimistic.
·Responsibility for social action.
·Good behavior.
·Respectfulness.
·Social responsibility.
·Belief in the correctness of morals.
·Service orientation.
·Local culture and values related to human rights.
·Current economic, social and political situation (international, national and regional).
·Forms of violations of human rights.
·UN conventions related to human rights.
·Understanding of social standards.
·Human rights concepts.
·Critical thinking.
·Peace building.
·Ability to act suitably according to social standards.
·Ability to cooperate.
·Human rights practitioner.
·Reflection making.
·Ability to use conflict resolution mechanism.


Curriculum Development

Facilitator Sirilus Belen explained that human rights can either be integrated or separated from existing subjects in the curriculum as follows:

FIGURE 1.

Curriculum
Development

Separate
Subject
Integration
(Fusion)

   He mentioned the five approaches identified by educator Douglas Barnes in curriculum development:
  • content-based approach, which may cause overloading of the curriculum;
  • concept-based approach, which guides children in forming their own values;
  • basic-skills approach (active-learning or participatory approach), which imparts social, physical, and intellectual skills;
  • problem-solving approach; and
  • interest-based approach.
   The first two approaches focus on what to learn. The basic-skills approach focuses on how to learn; it is also the most popular.

Why the Participatory Approach?

   The teaching of human rights should follow the participatory approach for the following reasons:
  • It inherently promotes child rights.
  • It is based on the belief in human potentials, capacities, indigenous talents, as well as on self-determination, freedom, justice, egalitarianism, and respect for human rights.
Curriculum Components

   A curriculum is composed of the following:
  • objectives;
  • contents;
  • methodology;
  • learning materials; and
  • process evaluation.
Developing a Model Teachers' Curriculum

   The Indonesian experience suggests that a model teachers' curriculum can be developed by doing the following:
  • organizing teachers' clubs in schools;
  • forming clusters of 6-7 schools in a specific area; and
  • adopting the cascade system to implement the curriculum.
   The teachers in an area should develop the curriculum as a team. Teachers' manuals should be like cookbooks: the readers should be able to use them without help. The teachers and schools should do this activity on their own, without a mandate from the central or provincial government, or district education office.

Integrating Human Rights Concepts into Other Subjects

   Losaria presented a sample curriculum from the Philippines and made the following points:
  • Human rights education is most easily integrated into social studies and values education.
  • The curriculum is broken down into the syllabus and lesson plans. Lesson plans should contain ready examples to help the teachers, who otherwise might consider that teaching human rights is merely an additional burden on their already-heavy teaching load.
  • Human rights questions are included in examinations.
  • The contents of human rights infusion seem more cognitive. The process aspect is shown through the teaching process. Guide materials evaluate students' skill. Activities outside the classroom are also observed.
TABLE 4. Infusion of Human Rights into Subjects in Indonesia
SubjectContentHuman rights concepts
Cooperation (Social studies)Discussion about goals and advantages of cooperation, including its relation to achieving improved living standard.Right to good living standard for each person, his/her family, including provision of clothes, food and shelter.
Colonial era (History)Stories about the arrival of colonial powers (the Portuguese, Dutch, and British) in Indonesia.Independence.

Expressing people's suffering during the colonial era.Right to be free from punishment, torture, forced disappearance.

   After the presentations, the three groups were each assigned human rights education activities taken from United Nations's ABC--    Teaching Human Rights. The activities are described as follows:

   ·Me on the Wall. Trace the outline of each child on a large piece of paper (best done lying down). Have the student paint in physical details, and then write down the child's personal and physical qualities (name, height, weight, what the child would most like to learn or do at school) on a label, which is then attached to the piece of paper. Pin the drawings up on the wall, allowing all students to learn about each other.

   ·A "Who am I?" book. Ask the children to begin a book about themselves, with their selfportrait on the cover. The book may contain personal pictures, prose, and poems. As children learn to write, they can put in personal details, questions about themselves, and answers to questions. If resources are limited, a book can be made for the whole class with a page or two for each child.

   ·The Lifeline. Have all the children stretch out a piece of yarn representing their life. They then hang on it drawings and stories that detail the important things that have happened to them, chronologically or not. They can also draw and write about the future.
   ·Wishing Well. Ask students to form a circle, which is the "wishing well." They take turns in making wishes:
   If I could be any animal, I'd be __________ because...
   Then they replace "animal" with bird, insect, flower, tree, piece of furniture, musical instrument, building, car, street, state, foreign country, game, record, TV show, movie, food and color.

   ·Blind Trust. Divide the class into pairs. Have one student blindfold the other and have the sighted member of the pair lead the "blind" one about for a few minutes. Make sure the leading child is not abusing his or her power to lead, since the idea is to nurture trust, not to destroy it. The "leader" of the pair should try to provide as wide a variety of experiences as possible, such as having the "blind" partner feel things with his or her feet or fingers, leading with vocal directions, or even playing a game.
   After a few minutes, have the participants reverse the roles and repeat the process so that the "leader" is now the led, and the "blind" partner the sighted one.
   Once the activity is over, have the students talk about what happened. Discuss how they felt--both as the "blind" and as "leaders."
   The activity can foster not only a greater awareness of what life is like for people with sight (or hearing) disabilities, but also spark a discussion of the importance of trust in the whole community. This can then lead to a discussion of world society and how it works and can fail to work.

   ·Me and My Senses. Have the children form a circle and use a role-play to explore the following statements:
Hearing helps me to...
Seeing helps me to...
Smelling helps me to...
Touching helps me to...
Tasting helps me to...
   Rephrase the questions, where appropriate, to suit the needs of children with disabilities (e.g., "not being able to see (very well? at all?) I'm still me, and I can..."), get each child to invent an instrument to help them smell or touch better. Have them describe, draw, or dramatize it.
   The groups then reported on the experience at the plenary session following the small group activity. Belen explained that the activities are meant to help the participants understand how learners learn, which is an important element in teaching.

Lesson Planning

   Before the teaching demonstration session at a Bali high school, facilitators showed participants how to make a lesson plan. Lesson plans have the following general components:
  • objectives;
  • contents;
  • activities;
  • assessment;
  • materials and resources; and
  • evaluation.
   The three groups met again separately to discuss the lesson plans that could be prepared for the teaching demonstration. They agreed that there would be team teaching with an Indonesian participant working together with a non-Indonesian participant. An evaluation form for the teaching demonstration was distributed to the observers.

Teaching Demonstration

   The teaching demonstration was held in the morning of 28 April 1999, in Sekolah Menengah Umum Denpasar (State Senior High School), for three classes of 16-17-yearold students. The participants from Thailand, the Philippines, and Indonesia had planned to conduct the teaching demonstration for 45 minutes in English, but the sessions went on for over an hour. The workshop participants and the students apparently had no language problems, and they all enjoyed the sessions. The lesson plans required the students to do an activity such as group work and then to report their discussions to the whole class.
   The teaching demonstration was the first held at the school. The teachers and heads of the school expressed the desire to learn more. The participants in turn thanked the schoolteachers and school heads for letting them work with the students.

Evaluating Human Rights Education Programs

   Losaria briefly discussed the evaluation of programs on human rights education in schools.

   Definition of evaluation
   She defined evaluation as a process of determining the value, benefits, and impacts of any effort on the target beneficiaries--participants, organizers, or the organization. Evaluation helps improve existing efforts.
   In making an evaluation, several issues have to be clarified:
  • the project to be evaluated;
  • the reason for the evaluation;
  • the results of the evaluation; and
  • the lessons learned.
   If the results are positive, the project may continue. If not, the project may be modified. It is important to answer the question "Who makes the improvements, and how and when?" in undertaking the next steps. In case there is no actual project to evaluate, benchmarking can be done. Benchmarking is a combination of needs assessment and evaluation. The best practices related to the subject are collected and studied. The information can then be used to envision the desired future. Planning and implementation then follow. Another form of evaluation is the cost-benefit analysis.

   Questions for evaluation
  • What is the purpose of evaluation?
  • What do I want to find?
  • What data do I need?
  • What are the processes and mechanisms for data gathering?
  • Who will do the evaluation?
  • Did the program suit the types of learners?
  • Did it correspond to their needs?
  • What is the time frame for evaluation?
   Evaluation data should serve as a basis for program improvement, modification, and planning.

   Instruments of evaluation
  • Field testing (similar to observation guide).
  • Advice and comments from teachers who tried the materials and programs.
  • Qualitative and quantitative evaluation.
  • Internal and external evaluation.
   Impact evaluation
   Measuring impact is difficult if the subject of evaluation is behavioral change. Attitude can be evaluated using the following:
  • surveys (questionnaires); and
  • skill testing (through simulation).
Areas to be reviewed are the following:
  • vision, mission, goals, and plan evaluation;
  • gaps between "what is" and "what should be";
  • quantitative and qualitative aspects of the vision (each aspect being differentiated); and
  • two levels of evaluation:
    • program evaluation (students' achievement level); and
    • teaching and learning processes evaluation. (See Annex for sample questionnaires.)

Country Visions

Participants expressed their vision for their own society and their mission for human rights education. The visioning exercise was done for each country. Participants also identified activities and projects that they could implement. An evaluation component was added to the exercise.
   The groups' vision, mission, goal statement, and proposed plans follow.


THAILAND

Vision
  • A society that is free from all forms of exploitation, where the people's rights and liberties are respected, where equality and justice prevail, where people help one another as a consequence of rational actions based upon firm moral values.
  • A society where the potential of all persons, especially from the less fortunate sectors, is developed; where there are no violations of rights; where democratic practices ensure that people live together in peace and happiness, and in harmony with nature and the environment.

Mission
  • Foster traditional values and wisdom as well as new values that promote respect for human rights.
  • Promote a culture of human rights, democracy, and peace.
  • Conscientize people in order to make respect for human rights a way of life.
  • Promote and foster spiritual values in the hearts of the people, beginning in the family and community, and then in education, religion, politics, mass media, and other sectors.

Objectives and goals
  • Provide knowledge and understanding of human rights so that respect for human rights becomes a way of life.
  • Adopt action plans for human rights education within people's organizations, NGOs, and other institutions, both public and private.
  • Ensure the establishment of the National Human Rights Commission as the mechanism that will work on and ensure human rights education in every educational and training institution.

Society in general

Goals
  • Empower the people.
  • Change the culture of the ruler vs. subjects.
Projects
  • Promote human dignity, self-esteem, self-reliance, and actualization through participatory group processes focusing on freedom and respect for equality.
Evaluation indicators
  • Response and demand from communities for workshops.
  • Participation of the community in self-governance.
  • Increase in number of people's forums.
  • Increase in number of people's organizations.
  • Establishment of saving groups (informal coops).
  • Self-help projects.
  • Transformation of bureaucrats' attitudes.

School

Goal
  • Transform schools into instruments of social change.
Projects
  • Teach human rights education in schools.
  • Foster a culture of human rights in schools.
Evaluation indicators
  • Involvement of the community in developing curriculums and instructional techniques.
  • Involvement of schools in community development.
  • Quality of relationship between schools and community.
  • Desire of students to be in school.
  • Changes in attitude and leadership style of the school administrator into those more participatory and cooperative.
   Two programs (one for the schools and another for the community) should be implemented simultaneously so that changes in the community and the schools will support each other.



INDONESIA

Vision
  • A civilized, peaceful, and respectful society.
  • A nondiscriminatory society that treats each person equally despite ethnic, religious, gender, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, disability, or age differences.
  • A democratic society enjoying freedom, justice, egalitarianism, and human rights.
Mission
  • Empower the powerless and disadvantaged.
Goal
  • Develop and enrich knowledge, attitudes, and skills, related to human rights.
Target
  • Students and out-of-school youth.
  • Decision makers.

VIETNAM

Goals
  • Develop and enrich teachers' and students' awareness of basic rights and citizen's obligations to the family, school, and community.
  • Develop appropriate attitudes and behavior (self-respect, confidence, responsibility).
  • Develop critical thinking and assessment with respect to rights and obligations.
  • Remind people to protect their rights and obligations.
Action plan
  • Organize training workshops on human rights education in schools, including those under the UNESCO Associated Schools Program.
  • Adjust the content and improve methods of teaching human rights through civic education in secondary schools and moral education in primary schools.
  • Develop a project to assess and evaluate programs on human rights education in schools.

CAMBODIA

Vision
  • Human rights for peace and reconciliation.
Mission
  • Transform the culture of violence into one of peace and respect.
Targets
  • Decision makers.
  • Youth.
  • Grass-roots communities.
Goal
  • Change people's behavior.
Objectives
  • Raise public awareness of human rights.
  • Understand human rights, responsibilities, and duties.
  • Encourage participation at all levels of society.
  • Enable the people to claim their rights.
Evaluation
  • Assess human rights education in schools using the following methods:
    • quantitative (internal and external) and qualitative evaluation;
    • geographical evaluation; and
    • evaluation of short learning.
  • Assess the influence of the program on the awareness and interest of decision makers in government ministries, school leaders and trainers, teachers, and parents.
  • Assess the sustainability of the program by tapping the initiative and creativity of the communities.

THE PHILIPPINES

Vision
  • A country where people have the knowledge, values, attitudes, and skills that will impel them to create and maintain a society governed and guided by the principles of social justice, democracy and participation, gender equality, sustainable development, spirituality, peace, and universality of human dignity.
Mission
  • Evolve a human rights culture by institutionalizing a multidisciplinary human rights education program in schools and nonformal venues, and in communities.
Goals
  • Lobby Congress to integrate human rights in school curriculums.
  • Network with government institutions, NGOs, international organizations, and the mass media.
  • Conduct research and special studies to enhance existing human rights education programs.
  • Integrate the teaching of human rights concepts and values in the existing curriculum.
  • Develop instructional materials and teaching supplements for teachers' use. Monitor human rights content in the curriculum. Include human rights questions in national examinations.
  • Develop capability-building programs for teachers.
  • Implement grass-roots and community-based advocacy programs.


Proposals for Follow-up Activities

The training program ended with an exercise in visioning and planning. Participants discussed proposals for follow-up activities that would promote networking and continuous mutual support at the national level. Some of the suggested activities are the following:
  • holding a writing workshop ("writeshop")for facilitators;
  • developing human rights education modules for facilitators and teachers;
  • conducting country-level research on local cultures and traditions (on rice culture, for example, and including the negative aspects) for teaching-material development; and
  • strengthening the partnership between schools.
   The Justice and Peace Commission (Catholic) in Thailand has already started a program that sends students in Bangkok to remote rural schools. Some participants suggested having bilateral programs between Indonesia and Thailand, and between Cambodia and Thailand.


Workshop Evaluation

Participants briefly evaluated the training workshop, and stated that they learned the following:
  • True learning is acquired through friendship.
  • Country experiences have differences and commonalities.
  • Ideas about human rights and human rights education are changing.
  • Human rights education is love. They stated that they accomplished the following:
  • Developed good relationships with fellow participants.
  • Explored the adult learning process.
  • Became involved in the workshop's activities.
  • Explored a cooperative and constructive learning process.
  • Developed curriculums.
  • Deepened their respect for others.
  • Learned more about the pedagogy of love.
  • Shared and exchanged ideas.
   A more formal evaluation was undertaken through a questionnaire: 11 of the 18 participants --and 4 nonparticipants (3 members of the organizing committee and 1 observer)-- responded; 22 persons are covered by the table of responses in the evaluation form. (See Annex.)

   Most respondents found the workshop "very satisfactory." Workshop objectives were rated "very relevant" or "excellent." The activities, the time allotted to each activity, the quality of workshop output, the relevance of materials, time management, knowledge on human rights obtained by the participants, and application of skills learned were found to be either "satisfactory" or "very satisfactory."
   The participants found the most beneficial aspects of the workshop to be the following:
  • sharing of country experiences;
  • lesson plan and curriculum development exercises; and
  • the teaching demonstration.
   Participants especially valued the exchange of experiences and the skills-improvement exercises. Many recommended stressing these in future workshops, as well as further emphasizing lesson planning and teaching methodology.
   One important suggestion was that the workshop be held annually in different countries.


Concluding Note

The Southeast Asia Pilot Teacher Training Workshop is actually a misnomer. It does not respond to the needs only of the teachers but also of curriculum developers, education policymakers, NGO workers, and school administration officials. It is therefore a general training course on human rights education in schools.
   As a pilot training workshop, it requires modifications in training design, activities, materials, and even timeframe. Thus, the evaluation results are an important component of the whole exercise.
   Participants consisted of a mix of educators (in various capacities), which ensured variety and substance in the discussions. The group discussions, for example, include frank statements on the situation of Southeast Asia societies. Such inputs are important as human rights education is based on learning from reality. Human rights education, as the participants said, has to be relevant to their lives, beginning with their situation at home.
   The workshop showed the importance of involving various parts of the education system in developing and implementing human rights education in schools. While teachers should certainly be a primary beneficiary of support, education officials in various capacities are likewise in need of training to be able to establish a sustainable support system for the teachers within and outside the government education structure. Thus, teacher trainers, curriculum developers, school administrators, and policymakers all play a major role in the human rights education program in schools, especially in supporting the frontline workers--the teachers.
   If all goes according to plan, further training can be held with respect to specific areas such as developing school curriculum or materials. This workshop is a significant first step in that direction.


An excerpt of the report from the training workshop. For the full report, see www.hurights.or.jp.



ANNEX

Sample Evaluation Form
What to
evaluate
ObjectivesProcess
mechanisms
Target
respondents / participants
When/dateUse of dataGuidelines










Evaluation Questionnaire for Human Rights Lesson Plans
OBSERVATION GUIDE
Title:Subject:
Grade/Year Level:School:
On a scale of 1 (lowest) to 4 (highest), rate the following items.
ITEM4321
  1. The session/lesson objectives are clear, attainable and measurable.
  2. Human rights concepts being developed were translated to relevant classroom activities.
  3. The lesson provides for the development of higher cognitive skills such as critical thinking, creativity, learning by doing and problem solving.
  4. The learning objectives are congruent with:
    a. content;
    b. teaching methodology/activities;
    c. process/analysis questions;
    d. evaluation mechanisms.
  5. The lesson as a whole is appropriate to the learners' grade level.
  6. There are motivational strategies (such as priming, games, clinchers) to enhance learners' attention and interest.
  7. The evaluation mechanisms provided are appropriate to gauge the learners' progress/grasp of concepts/ideas.
  8. Time management was properly observed.
  9. All instructions were clear and easily understood by the pupils/students.
  10. The activities enhanced pupil/student participation in the discussions.




  1. Are there portions in the lesson that may be worrisome to teachers and learners such as biases on gender, religion, use of language, illustrations, etc?
  2. Please identify particular portions/areas which need improvement.
  3. What are the strengths of the lesson?
  4. Other comments:
Thank you.         

Table of Responses in the Workshop Evaluation Form
Legend: 1 - unsatisfactory; 2 - fairly satisfactory; 3 - satisfactory; 4 - very satisfactory; 5 - excellent
Two groups are involved: participants and the facilitators/observers. Their responses are separately indicated.
  1. On the whole, how would you rate the training program?
    1. 0
    2. 0
    3. II = 2
    4. IIIII - III(IIII) = 8/12
    5. I = 1

  2. How would you rate the training in terms of
    a. relevance of the objectives
       1. 0
       2. II = 2
       3. 0
       4. IIIII - I (III) = 6/9
       5. III (I) = 3/4
    b. appropriateness of the workshop activities
       1. 0
       2. I = 1
       3. IIIII - (II) = 5/7
       4. II (II) = 2/4
       5. III = 3
    c. adequacy of time allotment per session
       1. 0
       2. III = 3
       3. IIIII - (III) = 5/8
       4. II (I) = 2/3
       5. I = 1
    d. quality of workshop outputs of the participants
       1. 0
       2. II = 2
       3. II (II) = 2/2
       4. IIIII - II (II) = 7/9
       5. 0
    e. relevance of materials or handouts
       1. 0
       2. (I) = 1
       3. IIIII- (I) = 5/6
       4. IIIII - I(II) = 6/8
       5. 0
    f. time management
       1. 0
       2. I = 1
       3. IIIII - I (II) = 6/8
       4. III (II) = 3/5
       5. 0
    g. performance of management staff
       1. 0
       2. I = 1
       3. II = 2
       4. IIIII - (II) = 5/7
       5. III (II) = 3/5
    h. participant's participation
       1. 0
       2. II = 2
       3. 0
       4. IIIII - II (III) = 7/10
       5. II (I) = 2/3

  3. How would you rate yourself in terms of
    a. knowledge obtained on human rights
       1. 0
       2. I = 1
       3. II (II) = 2/4
       4. IIIII - III(II) = 8/11
       5. 0
    b. your ability to apply skills gained
       1. 0
       2. 0
       3. IIIII - (III) = 5/8
       4. IIIII - I(I) = 6/7
       5. 0
    c. commitment to the promotion of human rights
       1. 0
       2. I = 1
       3. II = 2
       4. IIII(I) - (II) = 4/7
       5. IIII(I) = 4/5

  4. Which workshop objective was best achieved? Please explain.
    a. Vision, mission, goal formulation.
    b. Understanding implementation of human rights subjects
    by the teachers.
    c. Practically all objectives.
    d. Understanding of state of art of human rights education in school per country.
    e. Developing curriculum, profiling of human rights advocates (2), creating atmosphere for human rights education, making lesson plans.
    f. Promotion and development of knowledge and skills (2).
    g. Commitment building.
    h. Teaching demonstration (2).
    i. Having combination of seminar and workshop.

    Responses from non-participants
    a. Increase/development of knowledge on human rights.
    b. All objectives.
    c. Sharing of country experiences.

  5. From which workshop session did you learn most? Please explain.
    a. Teaching demonstration (2), meeting with local teachers.
    b. Small group discussions (2).
    c. Sharing of country experiences (4).
    d. Action planning.
    e. Methodology of teaching (2).

    (Responses from non-participants)
    a. Development of human rights curriculum.
    b. Teaching demonstration.
    c. Human rights issues.
    d. Learning activities exercises.
    e. Drafting action plans.

  6. What skills did you get from the training program?
    a. Preparation of issues for small group discussions and consolidate ideas in plenary session.
    b. Preparation of lesson plan (4), preparation of curriculum plan (3).
    c. Organizing international workshops.
    d. Situational analysis.
    f. Making decisions relevant to activity planning (2).
    g. Communication skills.
    h. Presentation skills.
    i. Formulation of vision, mission, goal (2).
    j. Setting training program.
    k. Designing sample teaching textbooks.
    l. Teaching methodology (2).
    j. Sharing and listening.
    l. Cognitive skills on human rights education in schools.
    l. Teaching demonstration.

    (Responses from non-participants)
    a. Leading discussions in a democratic way.
    b. How to share ideas to people from other countries.
    c. How to introduce human rights education schools using existing resources and networks.
    d. Communication skills (2).
    e. Presentation skills.
    f. How to work with people from other countries.

  7. What aspect of the training program did you find most satisfying?
    a. Atmosphere of training (friendship, brotherhood/sisterhood).
    b. High-caliber facilitation.
    c. Country-experience sharing (2).
    d. Teaching demonstration (5).
    e. Evaluating human rights education (2).

    (Responses from non-participants)
    a. Spirit of cooperation among participants.
    b. Teaching demonstration.
    c. Small group discussions for consensus building.
    d. Active participation of participants.

  8. Kindly state any suggestions to further improve the training program.
    a. Send materials on human rights education prior to workshop.
    b. Allot a half-day to sightseeing.
    c. Conduct the workshop annually in different countries.
    d. Discuss how to improve implementation of human rights education for students.
    e. Have more input into and exercises related to making lesson plans.
    f. Have another session with participants from countries in other regions.
    g. Gather additional input.
    h. Provide a better-equipped room.
    i. Have more common conviction and involvement in action among participants.
    j. Allot more time for teaching demonstration.
    k. Have a longer training period.
    l. Have a workshop on teaching materials.
    m. Provide successful models from other countries.
    n. Provide more materials on teaching methodology and making lesson plans.

    (Responses from non-participants)
    a. Use a bigger room.
    b. Lessen talking and increase practical activities.
    c. Extend workshop to five days.
    d. Allot more time to study of human rights documents.
    e. Have more action plans to deal with real human rights problems.
    f. Have more input into lesson preparation.
    g. Allot more time for each component of the workshop to allow more discussion and understanding of issues.

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