(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
(2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
(3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.
|TABLE 1. Human rights education pilot study findings|
|Aspects||Pilot study findings|
|1. Learning areas|
|a. Teaching-learning processes||Fusion model: Human rights education is integrated into relevant subjects.|
· Pancasila moral education,
· religious education,
· primary social studies and secondary social sciences (history, economics, geography, sociology, anthropology),
· primary science and secondary science (physics, biology, chemistry),
· Bahasa Indonesia, English, and other foreign languages,
· physical education,
· skill education.
|b. School activities||Human rights education is implemented through school activities such as:|
· subject competition (among schools),
· art competition,
· school health competition,
· vocal group competition,
· flag ceremony,
· school assembly,
· commemoration of national days and religious days,
· contribution for poor people and refugees,
· wall magazine.
|c. Extracurricular activities||Human rights education is implemented through activities such as:|
· teenagers' red cross,
· gym: self-defense,
· scientific work competition,
· music, painting, drama.
|d. School atmosphere||Resulting from interactions among headteacher, teachers, students, and clerical staff, and the school ethos reflecting human rights values and concepts|
|2. Curriculum development approach||Competence/outcome-based approach. Development steps:|
· Identify human rights education basic skills, mainly based on skills demonstrated by human rights activists.
· Identify human rights core values through the study of human rights history and that of international and national human rights instruments.
· Select main human rights contents/topics as means to develop human rights education basic skills and human rights core values.
· Identify socialization channels of human rights education, excluding teaching-learning processes.
· Construct a matrix relating to basic skills and human rights contents, human rights core values, and socialization channels of human rights education (Table 2).
|3. Teaching-learning approach||Adopt an active learning approach because it is the core of competence/outcomebased curriculum development approach. The core of active learning approach:|
Components here are reflected in teaching-learning activities and create supporting conditions for the realization of child rights (Table 3).
|4. Topic selection||Topic selection can apply a problem-solving approach through the following steps:|
· Determine a curriculum framework.
· Identify human rights issues.
· Select human rights concepts.
· Identify human rights core values (Table 4).
· Identify entry points to relevant subjects.
· Determine human rights education topics.
· Develop lesson plans.
· Implement the lesson plans.
|5. Main references||Human rights education references to be used by teachers are as follows:|
· international human rights instruments, especially declarations, conventions, and covenants adopted by the United Nations General Assembly;
· national human rights instruments: 1945 Constitution, National Assembly Stipulation No. XVII/MPR/1998 on Human Rights, Law 39 /1999 on human rights, other relevant laws, and government regulations;
· books, writings, news and reports on human rights, and
· human rights education teachers' guides/manuals.
|6. Learning resources||Firsthand learning resources: physical, social, and cultural environments. Secondhand resources: books, novels, writings of scientists and famous persons, comics, newspapers, magazines, poems, case studies, radio and television programs, songs, holy scriptures, religious stories, history sources, pictures, illustrations, posters, games, role-plays, crossword puzzles, and advertisements.|
|TABLE 3. The connection between child rights and the conditions created by an active learning strategy|
|A child's rights||Conditions created by an active learning strategy|
|· Right to express his/her opinion freely and to have that opinion taken into account in any matter or procedure affecting the child (Article 12.1)|
· Right to freedom of association and that of peaceful assembly (Article 15.1)
|Learning situations consist of group, pair, individual, and wholeclass learning. By working in pairs and in groups students can share their opinions. The teacher allows every student to decide what and how learning activities are to be done.|
|· Right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion (Article 13.1)|
· Right to freedom to seek, receive, and impart information and ideas of all kinds, either orally, in writing, or in print, in the form of art or through any other media (Article 13.1)
|The teacher encourages students to express their thoughts, feelings, and values in various creative works such as poems, stories, pictures, reports, posters, models, and arts and crafts.|
|All rights apply to all children without exception. It is the State's obligation to protect children from any form of discrimination and to take positive action to promote their rights (Article 2)||Racial, sex, and religious discrimination should be prevented. The teacher develops a variety of activities according to students' individual interests, learning speed, emotional characteristics, learning difficulties, ability to receive information from hearing, seeing, or touching.|
|Right to protection from interference with privacy, family, home, and correspondence, and from libel or slander (Article 16.1)||The teacher creates an atmosphere of respect for privacy, and of openness, honesty, and sincere conflict resolution.|
|· The State shall protect the child from all forms of maltreatment by parents or others responsible for the care of the child and establish appropriate social programs for the prevention of abuse and the treatment of victims (Article 19.1)|
· The child should grow up in an atmosphere of happiness, love and understanding (Preamble)
|Teacher creates an atmosphere of kindness, forgiveness, and mutual help, and prevents abuse, the use of swear words, and bullying.|
|School discipline shall be consistent with the child's rights and dignity. (Article 28.2)||The school creates an atmosphere of intrinsically motivated discipline and regulations that do not curb oral, written, facial, and bodily expressions.|
|Right to rest and leisure, to engage in play and recreational activities, and to participate in cultural life and the arts (Article 31.1)||The teacher applies learning by playing, doing, and using the physical, social, and cultural environment.|
|Education of the child shall be directed to the development of the child's personality, talents and mental and physical abilities to their fullest potential (Article 29.1.a)||· The active learning approach as the core of competence/outcome-based curriculum development approach applies to the development of intellectual, study, social, communicative, physical/technical, and personal skills.|
· The active learning approach applies also to multiple intelligences of a child: language, logical-mathematical, visual-spatial, kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal (Howard Gardner 1983).
|TABLE 4. An example of four four-step pr problem-oblem-solving appr approach oach for human rights education topic selection|
|Human rights curriculum framework||Issues||Human rights concepts||Core human rights values/concepts|
|Self||· Discrimination against minority groups|
· Unjust actions toward vulnerable people (children, women, the poor, the homeless)
|· Rights of minority groups|
· Right to just treatment
|· Equality and justice|
· Access to means to improve personal and social welfare
|Family||· Domestic violence against women and children|
· High death rate of children (1-5 years old)
|· Right to live in harmony|
· Right to be loved
· Right to health service
· Right to have food, clothes, and shelter
· Respect for human dignity
|Community||Child labor, street children, sexual abuse of children||· Children's right to social security|
· Children's right to be protected from neglect, cruelty, and exploitation
|· Moral integrity and ethics|
|Country||· Rape and sexual abuse of women migrant workers|
· Internal displacement of people due to human-made conflicts and natural disasters
|· Women's right to protection and safe working conditions|
· Right to get social service and welfare
· Right to fulfillment of urgent needs
· Children's right to education
|· Respect for human dignity|
· Access to opportunities for personal improvement and social welfare
|Region||· Air pollution due to forest fire|
· Human trafficking/undocumented migrants
|· Right to have a clean and healthy environment|
· Freedom from slavery
· Right to self-determination
|· Accountability and cooperation|
|World||· Greenhouse effect (ozone layer)|
· Conflicts among nations
|· Right to live and survive|
· Right to life, liberty, and security of person
· Respect for human dignity
|TABLE 5. Analysis of stakeholders' expectations for the implementation of human rights education in Indonesian schools|
|Stakeholders||Main expectations||Main weaknesses||Critical area||Strategic actions||Supporting resources|
|KOMNAS HAM (National Human Rights Commission)||Human rights education implementation in schools throughout the country||Dependent on Minisnistry of Education(MOE)||Lack of human rights educators||· Initiate the training of trainers|
· Publish human rights and human rights education books and materials
|Initiate the development of human rights educators' networking||?||Provide experience for staff on human rights education||?||?|
|Ministry of Justice and Human Rights||Human rights education implementation in school throughout the country||Dependent on MOE||Lack of human rights educators||Initiate the development of human rights education curriculum||?||?||Establish the Directorate General of Human Rights Protection||?||?|
|Human rights NGOs||Human rights education implementation in schools throughout the country||Lack of human rights educators||Lack of experience and expertise||Initiate teachers training||?||?||?||Grant||?|
|Curriculum Development Center-Office of R&D MOE||Human rights education implementation in schools throughout the country||Lack of support from MOE Central units||Human rights education is not yet a priority||· Pilot human rights education in schools and teachers education institutes in Cianjur and Kupang|
· Develop human rights education curriculum
|· Develop human rights education teachers' guides|
· Participate in SEA human rights education teachers' guides workshop
|Socialize human rights education to staff||?||?|
|Directorate General of Primary and Secondary Education (Dikdasmen)||Human rights education is not a priority||Lack of human rights educators||?||?||?||?||?||?|
|International and foreign country agencies||Human rights education implementation in schools throughout the country||Lack of continuing support for the piloting of human rights education||Lack of support for large-scale human rights education dissemination||· Provide human rights education books and materials|
· Support human rights education pilot studies
|?||?||Invite human rights education experts to support human rights education||Allocate "emergent" budget for human rights education pilot studies||?|
|Teachers and head teachers||Human rights education imple-mentation in schools||Wait for national policy on human rights education||Limited experience in active learning approach||· Try to implement human rights education|
· Participate in writing human rights education teachers' guides
|Teacher education institutes (piloting institutes)||Human rights education implementation in the institutes||Lack of support from the administration||· Lack of human rights educators|
· Lack of human rights education literature
|· Limited implementation by human rights education trained lecturers|
· Develop human rights education learning materials
|Encourage smallscale research on human rights education||?||?||?||?|